Remember the Tricolon
A tricolon is a rhetorical device that employs a series of three parallel words, phrases, or clauses. The word derives from Greek tri (“three”) + colon (“section of a sentence”). The plural of tricolon is tricola.
Churchill’s famous line in praise of the Royal Air Force repeats a “so” phrase: “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.
Tricola are at work in the answers to these two questions:
How do you get to Carnegie Hall?Quotations that remain in the memory long after one’s school days often contain tricola:
—Practice, practice, practice.
What are the three things that matter in property?
—Location, location, location.
Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears.Many of our idioms, clichés, and fossilized legal phrases take the form of tricola:
Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness
of the people, by the people, for the people
Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free.
Every Tom, Dick and HarryAdvertisers and PR agents understand the power of the tricola:
Lock, stock, and barrel
Wine, women, and song
Do you swear to tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth?
Power, beauty, and soul (Aston Martin)One of the most useful aspects of this rhetorical device is its effectiveness in embedding a thought in the memory.
Keeps going and going and going. (Energizer)
Snap! Crackle! Pop! (Rice Krispies)
Buy it. Sell it. Love it. (Ebay)
Thinner, lighter, and faster. (iPad2)
Stop, Look, and Listen (Traffic safety slogan)
Drop, Cover, and Hold On (Earthquake/tornado safety slogan)
The Rule of Three
There is a useful joke structure in humor writing called the
rule-of-three. Here's an example of the rule-of-three which I've used
as the greeting on my telephone answering machine: "Sorry I can't
personally answer the phone. I'm either motivating thousands of people,
appearing on the Oprah show...or taking a nap. Please leave a message
and I'll return your call when I wake up."
A humor technique from the world of comedy.
Here's what makes the rule of three work:
A funny line is sometimes said to be like a train wreck. You know where the train (your train of thought) has been, you think you know where it's going, but then you're surprised when it goes off track. The same sort of thing happens when you see the unexpected slip on the banana peel. The surprise or twist helps build the tension to create and magnify the humor.
The rule-of-three structure sets a pattern like the train coming down the tracks. You'll see a similar principle in action in a two-person comedy act. The straight person sets up the pattern which the funny person's punchline will break. The rule-of-three structure uses this same structure. The first two items in the triplet set the pattern (the "straight" line) and the third item breaks the pattern (the curve/the twist/the derailment). Breaking the pattern heightens the tension and creates the surprise, usually resulting in laughter. There are countless patterns you could use:
Same Category/Same Category/Different Category (T-shirt which lists world-class cities: Paris/Tokyo/Fargo).Why three? It's just one of those tried and true rules of comedy. It's a rhythm that works. It's part of the music of the humor structure. Experiment and you'll find it's true...a series of three almost always works better than a series of two or four.
Expected Trait/Expected Trait/Unexpected Trait (She was pretty, she was shapely, she was a man).
Something Everyone Loves/Something Everyone Loves/Something Everyone Hates (A Las Vegas wedding package contains everything you will need; music, flowers, a divorce document).
Ordinary/Ordinary/Ridiculous (I go to Las Vegas to see the shows, eat at the buffets and visit my money).
Extreme/Extreme/Ordinary (Speaking to thousands, appearing on Oprah, taking a nap)
Rhyme/Rhyme/Rhyme (rhyming sets a pattern and can disguise or add a special twist to the third-item punchline). Here's an example I created for a 50th birthday party using the "answer first then the question" vehicle which Johnny Carson made famous. "The answer is…Three things that describe Suzie Smith. And the question is…what are Nifty, Thrifty and Fifty." This example also uses the category Something Good/Something Good/Something Not So Good (people don't want to get older). I could have used the word Shifty as one of the first two words, but that would have been less effective setting the proper pattern.
Use the rule-of-three technique and it will become a natural part of your humor tool kit. You'll find yourself to be funnier, you'll connect better with your audiences, and in only fifteen years you'll become an overnight success.
Copyright 2006 by John Kinde
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"Copyright by John Kinde, who is a humor specialist in the training and speaking business for over 30 years specializing in teambuilding, customer service and stress management. Free Special Reports: Show Me The Funny -- Tips for Adding Humor to Your Presentations and When They Don't Laugh -- What To Do When the Laughter Doesn't Come. Humor Power Tips newsletter, articles and blog are available at www.humorpower.com."